Thursday, September 3, 2020
Significance of protected innovation rights Significance OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS- Protected innovation rights are acknowledged everywhere throughout the world because of some significant reasons. They were basically perceived for the usual meanings of these rights are:- Gives motivator to the person to new manifestations. Giving due acknowledgment to the makers and innovators. Guaranteeing the material award for protected innovation. Guaranteeing the accessibility of the first items. For financial development and headway in innovation part assurance of Intellectual property insurance is significant. They are profited for the development of the business in the field of innovation. Licensed innovation LAW INTRODUCTION Licensed innovation LAW Comprises of the accompanying Laws:- The Laws identifying with Trade Marks/Brands (Trade Marks Act, 1999), Property Marks The Laws identifying with (Copyright Act, 1957) Artistic Work, Literary Work, Audio Video Records and Software The Laws identifying with Industrial (Designs Act, 2000) The Laws identifying with Patents (The Patent Act, 1970) The Laws identifying with Geographical Indications. The land Indications of (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 The Laws identifying with Internet (Information Technology Act, 2000) Licensed innovation RIGHT INFRINGEMENT-A protected innovation encroachment is the encroachment or infringement of a protected innovation right. Copyright encroachment Copyright-It is a sort of security which is given to the creators of unique works including abstract, sensational, and melodic and certain other scholarly works, which might be distributed and unpublished. Copyright encroachment (or copyright infringement) is the utilization of material unapproved that is secured by copyright law, that disregards one of the copyright proprietors restrictive rights, for example, the option to play out the copyrighted work. It is otherwise called copyright infringement. Patent encroachment Patent-It is given by United States Patent and Trademark Office. A patent is the privilege to the innovator for a development. Patent encroachment preclusion act regarding a protected innovation without consent from the patent holder. By methods for the permit authorization might be allowed. It is otherwise called patent infringement. Trademark A trademark gives separate personality to the merchandise and enterprises to cause them to recognize from the others. It ensures words, names, images, sounds. Trademarks can be reestablished for perpetually or as long as they will be utilized. There is no requirement for enlistment of a trademark in the U.S. Trademark encroachment is an infringement of the selective rights connecting to a trademark without the approval of the trademark proprietor or any licensees. Encroachment may happen when one gathering, the infringer, utilizes a trademark which is indistinguishable from a trademark claimed by another gathering, corresponding to items or administrations which are indistinguishable or like the items or administrations which the enlistment covers. A proprietor of a trademark may begin legitimate procedures against a gathering which encroaches its enrollment. It is otherwise called trademark infringement. Targets To know the reasons encroachment of the protected innovation rights. To realize for what reason to think about IPR? What the insurance measures and temporary measures? Case identified with Intellectual Property Right Infringement. Audit of writing Monetary Effect of Intellectual Property Right Infringement There is an extraordinary impact of Intellectual Property Right Infringement .U.S organizations endure misfortunes as of late on the grounds that their Intellectual Property Rights (trademarks, copyrights and licenses) are not appropriately ensured abroad. Universal Trade Commission information is gathered from 244 US firms and the information is utilized to examine monetary impact of remote encroachment of US licensed innovation rights in five areas of industry. The benefit and misfortunes of US providers is much when contrasted with absolute benefits, this infers the misfortunes are more noteworthy than the benefits earned by providers who are encroaching on rights, yet that the misfortunes might be least than the advantages to infringers and purchasers. From Research it is called attention to that examination results recommend that Lessing benefits lost to infringers by one percent would require huge increments in ID and implementation costs. Examination METHODOLGY- Kinds OF DATA USED-Secondary information Wellsprings OF SECONDARY DATA-Data is gathered from the diaries, Newspapers, Internet Reasons for INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS INFRINGEMENT An excess of cost of Research and improvement. Globalization Prosecution delays in executing ip rights and grant of harms Programming robbery WHY CARE ABOUT IPR- Licenses are advantage to the proprietor of the IP and it add significance to mechanical just as business concerns , revelations and give motivations to private area venture into their turn of events. They all ought to have separate Research and improvement focus. Globalization and progression of innovation has assumed a significant job in licensed innovation insurance for little and medium measured endeavors. The impalpable idea of licensed innovation makes difficulties for those organizations, to secure their creations, brands, and business in outside business sectors. Licensed innovation assurance is important to the achievement of biotechnology organizations. For these organizations, the patent framework serves to support them for the advancement of new drugs and diagnostics for treatment and observing ailments, and agrarian items. Instructions to OBTAIN INFORMATION ABOUT INFRINGEMENT OF TRADE MARK/COPYRIGHT The most ideal approach to get data about the robbery of exchange mark/copyright is organizations advertising methodologies. The best option is commitment of analyst offices on legally binding premise, which have their own other system. By reviews in significant metropolitan urban areas of India, the data can be acquired about the encroachment/theft of products and these studies will prompt and result in the ID of assembling, go downs, conveyance arrange. Legal SYSTEM IN INDIA The Indian legal framework is free from official/government and it is formation of Constitution of India. It is compulsory to comply with the sets of the Courts in India by Focal State Governments and any resistance of the request for the courts are taken as intense and that may bring about the fine and/or detainment. In India High Court and Supreme Court decisions has the power of the law. Indeed, even on the planet the Indian Judicial System is extraordinary compared to other lawful frameworks which have systematized laws and set up strategies. Cures AVAILABLE UNDER INDIAN LAWS Common REMEDIES Order/remain against the utilization of exchange Harms can be asserted Records and giving over of benefits For authority there is arrangement of neighborhood official/encroaching material fixing. Under request 39 standard 1 2 of the CPC the application is recorded. CRIMINAL REMEDIES Before the boss legal officer the grievance is recorded. Proof of the encroachment of the IPR. Under sec. 93/94 the application is recorded. Search of encroaching material is finished by Police according to requests and headings given by the court. Housing of fir and search under area. 156 of the criminal strategy code, 1973. Locale FOR FILING CIVIL/CRIMINAL LITIGATION Common Cases-The locale for documenting in a common suit will incorporate given realities and satisfaction of given conditions:- From where the reason for activity has occrued? Where the infringement of IPRs are occurring? Where the litigants work for gain? Exchange Marks Act, 1999, it gives an exemption, to enrolled exchange mark and the enlisted Trade Mark proprietor can record a case with in court, from where the holder is conveying its business. The locale for documenting a case relies upon the exercises of the respondents. There is no compelling reason to record a suit in various courts independently. Assurance AGAINST INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS INFRINGEMENT The encroachment of protected innovation rights (IPRs) are by managerial methods and lawful procedures. In common liabilities, the infringer may requested to stop the abused exercises, kill the harm done, make open expressions of remorse and make up for all the harms. In regulatory measures, they remember alerts for request to stop the disregarding exercises, fines, and pay for harms made. The invested individuals go for intercession, when there is IPR encroachment debate emerges. On the off chance that intervention fizzled, or invested individuals wouldn't submit to the result of intercession, legitimate procedures might be founded with people groups court. The invested individuals may likewise demand the important authoritative experts for activities. Legitimate PROCEEDINGS At the point when an IPR encroachment contest emerges, the encroached party may found lawful procedures legitimately with the people groups court at where encroaching action happens In the event that an invested individual finds that because of crisis or by any postponement in stop the encroaching exercises may make harms his/her privileges, he may, before organizing legitimate procedures, demand the people groups court to freeze the advantages of the infringer. The people groups court will make sure that the infringer, if the infringer is indicted, he will be made to hold up under common liabilities for the encroaching demonstration. The infringer will be arraigned for his criminal liabilities where the case is so genuine to establish a wrongdoing. Authoritative PROCEDURES (an) Information and Proof to be Submitted At the point when encroachment of IPR contest rises, the intrigued may demand the authoritative specialists or more at the spot of the infringers habitation In request to make the solicitation to the organization specialists, the invested individual ought to need to present a composed confirmation of his privilege and proof of the encroaching demonstration. (b) Processing by Administrative Aut
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Understanding Your Strengths And Weaknesses Essay In an investigation discharged, 87% of laborers overall are genuinely detached from their work environments and are less inclined to be gainful; making work a wellspring of disappointment instead of one of satisfaction. (Gallup, 1993) The insights show an absence of promise to learning and comprehension of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own qualities and shortcomings, among the populace. Individuals need to consider the individual they are and where their qualities and shortcomings lie provided that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop to consider what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re great at and what they have to improve, they will wind up in the 87% of the populace who donÃ¢â¬â¢t appreciate what they do. Following this revelation, I finished a character test on 16Personalities.com that expressed my qualities and shortcomings following addressing a progression of inquiries, in wants to have a superior comprehension to how my qualities and shortcomings assume into the job as a paramedic. The character test uncovered that I am philanthropic, an acceptable cooperative person, have great interchanges, yet additionally am excessively magnanimous and touchy; these outcomes will give me a superior appreciation with respect to how and why a profession as a paramedic is an ideal choice for me. My qualities of having the option to function admirably in a group setting, having great relational abilities and being unselfish will help me as a paramedic, while these are fundamental attributes to turning into an incredible paramedic. The test uncovered that I am open minded and dependable, where it clarifies I exceed expectations in group conditions where I am ready to tune in to other people, in any event, when their suppositions negate mines; and I am disturbed by allowing individuals to down, so I can be relied on to perceive any assignment through. It is significant for paramedics to be acceptable cooperative individuals and be dependable on the grounds that paramedics are regularly positioned circumstances where they need to work with others (like the police and firemen) where we need to confide in one another and function admirably together in a circumstance whereby we are compelled to depend, as it were, conceivably for our own prosperity, and every other person on scene. The test additionally told that I Ã¢â¬Å"instinctively realize the best way to catch a crowd of people, and get on mind-set and inspiration in manners that permit them to speak with reason, feeling, energy, restriction whatever the circumstance calls forÃ¢â¬ , further explaining saying that I can move my tone and way to mirror the requirements of the crowd, while as yet keeping up my own voice. These extraordinary relational abilities are a significant part to the vocation as it will permit a greater accurateÃ¢ assessment of the circumstance through revealing what occurred, what number of individuals were included or whether there is any residual peril. Having the option to converse with individuals and keep the two patients and family or others on the scene quiet can make the circumstance simpler to control, and keeping up discussion with a patient can assist with recovering significant data that might be required for their treatment. It was revealed that I want to do useful for other people and for my locale, and that I truly accept that in the event that I can simply unite individuals, I can do a lot of good. Due to the idea of the profession, where paramedics are reacting to individuals who need assistance, it is fundamental people seeking after a vocation as paramedic want to have any kind of effect in the lives of others and in their locale. The character test uncovered that I am excessively benevolent and touchy, clarifying that I will cover myself in my cheerful guarantees and feeling othersÃ¢â¬â¢ issues as my own. On the off chance that IÃ¢â¬â¢m not cautious, I could extended myself excessively far, and be left unfit to support anybody. In view of my affectability to others it implies that occasionally I feel issues that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t my own and attempt to fix things I canÃ¢â¬â¢t fix and investing a lot of energy agonizing over whether on the off chance that I am doing what's needed. My shortcomings may make things troublesome as a paramedic in light of the fact that the truth of it is I might be with the patient until they are in the medical clinic. It is beyond the realm of imagination to expect to have the option to take care of each issue, and in the event that I worry about that concern on my shoulders at work, it will be exceptionally hard for me to have great mental dependability making me progressively defenseless to PTSD. One way I can improve my shortcoming is discussion about my emotions as I am feeling with collaborators or the specialist. On the off chance that I am persistent about keeping a practical impression of the circumstance I am in, and comprehend there is so much one individual can do, I am sure I can move through each call no sweat. All in all, it is obvious that my qualities as a characteristic cooperative person, extraordinary communicator, and selfless ordinarily would help make me an incredible paramedic. Paramedics work in distressing and forced workplaces, where lives are influenced by the result of their activities. This can be made considerably progressively troublesome by the long working hours. The job has a huge amountÃ¢ of obligation, and these are significant characteristics for the individuals who wish to do well in crisis care. An extraordinary paramedic would not have the option to perform troublesome and upsetting work to the limit that they have to without having the option to cooperate with other people on scene, have the option to test and concentrate data deliberately, and want to be there to have any kind of effect in a period of emergency.
Friday, August 21, 2020
'Worker's guild Membership in Australia has Declined Significantly Since the 1980s.Ã¢ As a result,Ã Unions are turning into an Irrelevant Actor in Australian Employment Relations'. Drawing on Academic Research and Commentary,Ã¢ Provide a Response to this announcement. Ã In confining your contention, Consider the Antecedents and Consequences of the Decline in Trade Union Membership and Trade Union Density. In surveying the elements that prompted the development and fall of mechanical work in Australia, the current paper battles that help for associations at first surfaced from a regular workers which was a result of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s phenomenal financial past. In the 20 th century the consolidation of frameworks of obligatory assertion, figured to intercede modern questions, fortified the help for trade guilds. In the year 1948, the help for unionism was at its zenith. A long procedure of its fall began as the working unit voting public that had provided its social stay divided because of auxiliary changes in the economy. The breakdown of assertion post-1986 exasperated this declining design, as did an ascent in outlandish work and hostile to association strategies of the businesses (Docherty, 2010). The current exposition surveys the writing on the fall in association thickness in Australia. Apropos investigations are basically examined and looked at, and the audit exposes the intri cacy of the issue, the need to keep away from oversimplified reactions, and makes proposals with respect to the territories of study that most probable enlarge the cognizance of the sharp decrease in unionization. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics figures of 2000, the fall in organization enrollment in the country, in spite of the endeavors made by the Australian Council of Trade Unions to forestall further decrease. While it is clear that there is a decrease in association thickness, it is basic to assess the purposes for it and what are the associations accomplishing for fighting such descending pattern. In endeavoring to deal with the issue, it is huge to comprehend the significant targets of the association that draws individuals and the forerunners of the decay (Abbott, MacKinnon and Fallon, 2016). Australian associations were set up in the underlying portion of the 19 th , with development beginning in the post dash for unheard of wealth age. It is from that point that the most quick development of the period seems to have been in the time of the 1880s, wherein rich financial conditions and a contracted work showcase were drivers making for the advancement of associations. The fundamental objective of an association is to upgrade the prosperity and advance the interests of its individuals. They were made to counterbalance the higher monetary intensity of the businesses (Cooper et al., 2009). It has for some time been recognized that the predominance over the market by the businesses could be countered by workers acting mutually and initiating associations to haggle on their part. The most significant capacity performed by the association was to augment the pay rates and wages of its individuals. There are a few reasons why workers may join an association. Notwithstanding, three components are clear. They are; sense the benefits of unionism outperform the feasible costs; dismay with monetary parts of their activity; and a goal to affect those aspects of the workplace by means of association implies. Regardless of the obvious advantages of the association, the enrollment of Australian association has declined. As underscored by Kaufman, (2008) unionism reaped a center spot in the Australian people group among 1921 and mid-1950s. Indeed, even in the significance of the Great Depression, the enrollment never dove beneath 42.5%. In addition, with the recuperation of the economy during World War II, it earned remarkable help. Times have altogether changed. Two decades back half of all workers were a piece of the association. At present, the pace of unionization is just 23%. Indeed, even the open segment, which was before a pillar of association power, has seen a sharp decrease in the thickness. In the age of feminization, computerization and casualization, de-unionization is maybe the most impressive change to need to strike the work showcase throughout the years. An indication of fall in association quality is the uncommonness of strikes (Holland et al., 2011). The quantity of days lost to modern clashes is only one-fourth of its level during the mid 1980s. To understand the change, Bashur and Oc, (2015) set that it is useful to dispose of two regular clarifications for association decay quickly. The first is that the thickness diminished because of the expanding doubt of laborers toward it. As a result, disposition will in general reflect association power. At the point when the enrollment expanded duri ng the 1970s, Australians were bound to state, surveyors, that they accepted associations had extraordinary quality and more averse to assent that associations had been an incredible thing for the nation. Correspondingly, as they began winding down during the 1990s, the part of people who accepted that associations conveyed an excessive amount of intensity diminished consistently (Docherty, 2010). The second contention which is made is that de-unionization was a result of the fall in genuine wages which occurred under the Accord. However as Leigh, (2011) calls attention to in his examination The Decline of an Institution, this announcement implies that unionization more likely than not fallen more during the 1980s (when there was a decrease in genuine pay) than the 1990s (when there was an ascent in genuine wages). In any case, the inverse is genuine Ã¢â¬ the most extraordinary decrease in unionization occurred during the 1990s. On the off chance that not the Accord and mentalities, at that point what prompted association thickness seeing the descending pattern? The fall limits to four central point: changes to the laws directing associations, higher item showcase competition, developing imbalance, and auxiliary changes in the work advertise. The most significant factor in de-unionization in Australia has been changes in the legitimate framework controlling the associations. Ã Hodder and Kretsos (2015) express that somewhere in the range of 1990 and 1995, conventionalist governments in five out of six states brought into impact an enactment planned to deny compulsory unionization, advancing individual bartering, and acquainting changes with non-grant inclusion simpler. Incomprehensibly, this was like the procedure that occurred during the 1920s, when a progression of state Labor governments upheld law for wage discretion and compulsory unionism, bringing about an upsurge in organization enrollment. During the later 50% of the 1980s, over half of the endorsers should have been a patron as their business condition. During the 1990s, no longer bound to be a part, a gigantic extent selected to surrender their participation (Leigh, 2011). Expectedly, the associations that drag the greatest brunt were those that were most note worthy subject to obligatory association laws. The new law was authorized from 1996 when the then government for all intents and purposes wiped out obligatory unionism and made it trying for the associations to recruit and strike. The second most huge driver of de-unionization has been expanding rivalry. Driven by microeconomic changes, restored Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and tax cuts, the market for buying most merchandise and enterprises are presently significantly more serious than during the 1970s. At the point when organizations have an oligopoly or syndication circumstance, it is advantageous for them to pay more significant compensations to their laborers. Costs are more noteworthy in non-serious markets, and in economicsÃ¢â¬â¢ language, this produces Ã¢â¬Å"rentsÃ¢â¬ . The businesses at that point offer such Ã¢â¬Å"rentsÃ¢â¬ with workers (Grenfell, 2017). At the point when restraining infrastructures are part, and the commercial centers become serious, businesses need to reduce expenses. This squeezes the organizations to follow amazing enemy of association systems to limit the compensation bill. The third contention for declining association assorted variety is the expansion in income disparity. To appreciate how this functions, it is pivotal to recognize that associations point more prominent wages as well as for more significant compensation pressure (Heidecker, 2013). This occurs through normalized wage timetables, and cases that request an equivalent increment for each specialist. Less compensation appropriation inside an association likewise renders it simple for associations to shape, as representatives are probably going to have shared reason with the individuals who get comparable pay rates. Market analysts have as a rule concentrated on the way in which de-unionization impacts imbalance (Bray, Waring and Cooper, 2011). In Australia, Jeff Borland found that 30% of the ascent in income dissimilarity among lasting guys somewhere in the range of 1986 and 1994 can be clarified by falling unionization. Be that as it may, the inverse can likewise be valid. On the off chanc e that dissimilarity expanded (attributable to globalization, innovative change, or different variables), associations are probably going to think that its hard to make a compelling alliance between generously compensated and low-paid representatives. The likelihood of two workers both gaining $20 every hour joining the association is higher than if one make $10 and the other $30 (Koukoulas, 2015). The last factor is basic work showcase changes. All through the created economies, associations have a simpler time recruiting in the open division, the assembling part, among lasting representatives and in huge organizations. The rise of the administration area, casualization of the work power, downscaling of government and the surfacing of SMEs are generally changes that impediment associations (Forsyth et al., 2017). To look at the effect of the previously mentioned factors, Peetz, (2012) utilized a technique called Ã¢â¬Å"shift-share analysisÃ¢â¬ , and reasoned that they were liable for about half of the fall during 1982-92, in any case, don't explain a significant part of the decrease from that point forward. As the drop-in unionization has been speedier during the 1990s when contrasted with the 1980s, this downgrades basic changes to a minor job in depicting the general drop in unionization over the most recent 37 years. Proof suggest that casting a ballot by patrons is being finished with their feet and that different frameworks are developing to supplant them. The extent of organizations with common consultative
Monday, June 8, 2020
Ethics Paper (Essay Sample) Content: Title:Name of Student:Institution: Introduction If there has been any controversial topic with regards to the justice system is the idea of the death sentence. To some, this sends cold chills down their spine as they ponder the ethical rationality of the death penalty. There are those who support it with the justification that some crimes are only but well punished by killing the criminals. Death penalty as a criminal offence wmay be used interchangeably with the term death sentence. It is a punishment that has been in practice from the Roman Empire times and was even passed against criminals in the early stages of development of the Chinese people. However, despite many rejections and condemnation of this form of punishment from the Christian community and other bodies, some countries have kept on practicing this kind of punishment on capital offenders. In fact, offenders were punished more harshly in the early times as compared to these days.In view of all these, t his paper discusses the ethical concerns of this form of punishment. One of the notable persons in history to be a victim of death sentence was Socrates. He was made to drink poison for commission of inter alia, corruption offences. In recent years, the best example of a man sentenced to death and indeed killed by hanging was the one Saddam Hussein the former president of Iraq. As such, this kind of punishment has been faced by criticism from many who question the integrity of the whole idea. There have been so many ethical concerns about executions. Starting from Bentham, who said that it was not a good idea from the onset, many havealso kept onquestioning the legality and morality of executing offenders as a form of punishment. When explaining his Principle of Goodness, Ron House suggests that the universe is never perfect and that there would always be an excuse for every rule (House, R., 2007). He goes ahead to point out that problems such asdeath penalty cannot be solved by one solution. Morally, itis wrong to kill someone in the name of punishing a crime especially when the truth is that no one canprecisely prove that the alleged offender is 100% guilty. This can be related to instances that led to the crucifixion on the Biblical Jesus Christ. Inasmuch as there could be a justified execution, there are many gaps in the justice system that could lead to unjust executions (Llyod, S., 1998). Regardless of the fact that there are those in support and those that disprove the idea of death sentence, there are many questions that are yet to be answered concerning execution of offenders. Among the questions is, if the penalty is equivalent to committed offences, or if death sentence actually prevents crimes carrying the death punishment. Further, it is difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the penalty in deterring murders. (Kyte, R., 2010) explains why he thinks the death penalty needs to be reviewed. He proposes four ways that may be employed to determine whether an action should be taken to be morally right and acceptable. One of the rationales he puts across is that of looking at the fairness of the action. If the action, he explains, treats different people equally and with some respect then that may be to some extent considered morally acceptable. In the current judicial systems, there are various factors that would discredit the death sentence for instance,criminal proceedings that lack integrity. This is because there are other factors that contribute to the convictions, factors that are not in any way related to the offence. Factors such as race have been highly raised as a concern on the many convictions for crimes committed against a particular race (Kyte, R., 2010). Poor legal representation is also another factor to consider when passing such sentences. This leaves many unanswered questions concerning the whole process as it implies that the poor could be easily fabricated and sentenced to death for offences they are not really liable. Kyte, in a parting shot, says that he should be considered adissenter of any move to justify death sentence as long as there is no truthful method to carry out the death sentence in a manner that is effective, fair and just. Indeed much is questionable under this controversial topic. Not only does the death sentence violate the peoples right to life but it also shows disrespect for human dignity. To ... Ethics Paper - 550 Words Ethics Paper (Essay Sample) Content: Title:Name of Student:Institution: Introduction If there has been any controversial topic with regards to the justice system is the idea of the death sentence. To some, this sends cold chills down their spine as they ponder the ethical rationality of the death penalty. There are those who support it with the justification that some crimes are only but well punished by killing the criminals. Death penalty as a criminal offence wmay be used interchangeably with the term death sentence. It is a punishment that has been in practice from the Roman Empire times and was even passed against criminals in the early stages of development of the Chinese people. However, despite many rejections and condemnation of this form of punishment from the Christian community and other bodies, some countries have kept on practicing this kind of punishment on capital offenders. In fact, offenders were punished more harshly in the early times as compared to these days.In view of all these, t his paper discusses the ethical concerns of this form of punishment. One of the notable persons in history to be a victim of death sentence was Socrates. He was made to drink poison for commission of inter alia, corruption offences. In recent years, the best example of a man sentenced to death and indeed killed by hanging was the one Saddam Hussein the former president of Iraq. As such, this kind of punishment has been faced by criticism from many who question the integrity of the whole idea. There have been so many ethical concerns about executions. Starting from Bentham, who said that it was not a good idea from the onset, many havealso kept onquestioning the legality and morality of executing offenders as a form of punishment. When explaining his Principle of Goodness, Ron House suggests that the universe is never perfect and that there would always be an excuse for every rule (House, R., 2007). He goes ahead to point out that problems such asdeath penalty cannot be solved by one solution. Morally, itis wrong to kill someone in the name of punishing a crime especially when the truth is that no one canprecisely prove that the alleged offender is 100% guilty. This can be related to instances that led to the crucifixion on the Biblical Jesus Christ. Inasmuch as there could be a justified execution, there are many gaps in the justice system that could lead to unjust executions (Llyod, S., 1998). Regardless of the fact that there are those in support and those that disprove the idea of death sentence, there are many questions that are yet to be answered concerning execution of offenders. Among the questions is, if the penalty is equivalent to committed offences, or if death sentence actually prevents crimes carrying the death punishment. Further, it is difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the penalty in deterring murders. (Kyte, R., 2010) explains why he thinks the death penalty needs to be reviewed. He proposes four ways that may be employed to determine whether an action should be taken to be morally right and acceptable. One of the rationales he puts across is that of looking at the fairness of the action. If the action, he explains, treats different people equally and with some respect then that may be to some extent considered morally acceptable. In the current judicial systems, there are various factors that would discredit the death sentence for instance,criminal proceedings that lack integrity. This is because there are other factors that contribute to the convictions, factors that are not in any way related to the offence. Factors such as race have been highly raised as a concern on the many convictions for crimes committed against a particular race (Kyte, R., 2010). Poor legal representation is also another factor to consider when passing such sentences. This leaves many unanswered questions concerning the whole process as it implies that the poor could be easily fabricated and sentenced to death for offences they are not really liable. Kyte, in a parting shot, says that he should be considered adissenter of any move to justify death sentence as long as there is no truthful method to carry out the death sentence in a manner that is effective, fair and just. Indeed much is questionable under this controversial topic. Not only does the death sentence violate the peoples right to life but it also shows disrespect for human dignity. To ...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Table of Content Executive Summary 3 1. Introduction 4 1.1 Overview of Harvey Norman Holding Limited 4 1.2 Major Competitor 5 1.2.1 JB Hi-Fi 5 1.2.2 Woolworth 5 2. Capital Structures 6 2.1 Types of Funding 6 2.2 Recent Trends of Leverage 7 2.3 Comparison of capital structure with similar companies 9 2.4 Capital expenditures and its financing 10 2.5 Important factors influencing the use of debt financing 10 2.5.1 Tax Advantage 10 2.5.2 Corporate Tax Rate 11 2.5.3 Credit rating 11 2.5.4 Interest rate 11 2.5.5 CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Industry 12 2.5.6 CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth rate 12 2.5.7 Some other arguments about Harvey Norman 12 2.6 Evidence of financialÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦HVN appropriate share price is $4.23 which is $0.12 higher than the actual closing price of $4.11. It is recommended for the investor to purchase more of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s share as it was undervalued. The sensitivity analysis shows the theoretical share price is very sensitive to change in WACC. Careful and continuous observation might be needed to constantly monitor the factors that can alter the WACC such as market return, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s beta, risk free rate , and tax rate. D/E ratio can also alter the WACC due to tax benefit on debt. This implies we should keep checking changes of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure, namely its financing decisions and activities because they are important factors to create value of the company. 1. Introduction 1.1 Overview of Harvey Norman Holding Limited Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd is a public company whose principal activities consist of an integrated franchising, retail, and property entity. As a franchisor it give franchises to independent business operator and as business owners HVN provide retail product for home and office with different range of categories such as electrical, computers and communications, small appliances, furniture, bedding and Manchester, home improvements, lighting, carpet, and flooring. HVN started it business since October 1982 with only one store. For the past 26 years they are experiencing massive growth. As at 7 Oct 2008, there were 192 franchised complexes aroundShow MoreRelatedCorporate Finance Notes1881 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesStudy notes By Zhipeng Yan Corporate Finance Stephen A. Ross, Randolph W. Westerfield, Jeffrey Jaffe Chapter 1 Introduction to Corporate Finance ..................................................................... 2 Chapter 2 Accounting Statements and Cash Flow.............................................................. 3 Chapter 3 Financial Markets and NPV: First Principles of Finance................................... 6 Chapter 4 Net Present Value....................................Read MoreNotes for Corporate Finance2082 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCorporate Finance Notes * Chapter One: Introduce to Corporate Finance 1. Three Questions: A. What Long-term asset should be invested? Capital Budgeting B. How to raise cash for capital expenditures? 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Raveena Singh CS 4001 4-25-2016 Automating Journalism Journalism should be as automated as possible and the production of tools to help journalists supplement their articles should be encouraged. For data-intensive fields, more algorithms with the ability to report news without human intervention should be generated. Although there is a fear that these new technologies will have harmful effects on journalism, collaboration between the technology and journalism industries will benefit the future of journalism. New technology will lead to cheaper production costs in the long run, greater content coverage, and overall higher-quality content. Journalism has changed over time with the help of technology. The tools that journalists use to createÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These tools include: Google Glass, Columbia Daily Tribune maps, metro maps, and algorithms. These tools have saved time, money, and resources compared to traditional journalistic methods. In the past, working for the newspaper meant discovering a good story, conducting interviews and research, and submitting stories on time. These elements stay at the core, but new elements have been added. Now, it is standard to generate video and audio alongside text, including an email address, and using web tools to add depth and richness to articles. It is also important to get information to readers as fast as possible on any platform they use (Regan, 2000). Technology will change the future of the way journalism is conducted. Just as phones gave reporters the ability to stay on the scene of a story longer, TV gave the ability to tell news stories with moving images. New media is already changing how journalists do their job, whether they welcome the changes or not. Producing this supplementary material will be a part of every reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s job description. The heart of good journalism, storytelling, will remain a priority, but the tools used will certainly change (Regan, 2000). Technology has changed the newspaper media industry in terms of how we read and report news. A reporter arriving to a scene with a pen and paper is an iconic image, but to be a successful journalist in the modern world
Question: Discuss About The Exchange Rate Movements And The Australian? Answer: Introduction The present report highlights on the case study focusing on the Australian dollar sliding back to 70 US cents. Based on this case study, the following questions are answered. The first questions reflect on the determination of AUD exchange rate in the Forex market using the demand and supply framework. The second question analyzes the movement of AUD in relation to that of USD. The third question discusses about the driving forces that affect the AUD/USD exchange rate. The fourth question elucidates on the influence of depreciation of Australian dollar on the firm. The last question focuses on the actions taken by the Reserve Bank of Australia for bringing the exchange rate back to US 80C AUD. Exchange rate refers to a specific nation currency in terms of foreign currency. The demand supply framework of determination of exchange rate indicates that equilibrium exchange rate varies when some of the factors that impact demand as well as supply condition varies. Unlike determination of price as well as quantity, the demand-supply model basically guides authorities to forecast this exchange rate in the next period. In addition, it also aids to trace different causes that impact the exchange rate of the nation and thereby directs policymakers to measure the condition effectively. The determination of exchange rate of AUD in the forex market has been described below. The figure below represents the demand- supply model of the foreign exchange market in which the demand of currencies has been attained through demand of export of the nation while the supply has been determined through demand of its imports (Amiti, Itskhok and Konings 2014, p.1970). The demand curve (DD) is drawn based on the derived demand whereas the supply curve (SS) is drawn based on aggregate import goods demand. It has been assumed that the equilibrium occurs at the point E* in which the exchange rate for per unit AUD is 80C USD. However, at this point, the demand for the import goods in the Australian market is depicted by Q. Now, if the demand for AUD increases from Q0 to Q1, the foreign exchange demand will shift in the rightward direction from DD to DD1. This leads to increase in exchange rate to 81C for per unit of AUD. On the contrary, if the demand of AUD decreases, the demand curve shifts to leftward direction from DD to DD2. This in turn leads to decline in exchange r ate to 77C USD per unit of AUD from 80C USD per unit of AUD. The above diagram of the demand-supply model of the exchange rate of Australia reflects that the market system is flexible (Mancini, Ranaldo and Wrampelmeyer 2013, p. 1840) There are several factors that lead to fluctuation of demand as well as supply of AUD, which are explained below: Rate of inflation- Low rate of inflation will exhibit increasing AUD value leading to rightward shift of demand curve. On the other hand, higher inflation rate leads to depreciation of AUD that shifts the demand curve to right. Current Account of nation- Australias current account includes exports, debt, imports and so on. Deficit in Australias current account owing to high spending in currency on import goods than total earnings from export goods sale leads to depreciation. This in turn shifts the demand curve to right. Interest rate-Rise in rate of interest leads to appreciation of the AUD owing to increase in demand of export of the products and services. Plans of government- The government of Australia increases the demand of its currency in the foreign market with increase in import substitution as well as export promotion. This in turn leads to increase in the nations exchange rate. Trade weighted Index (TWI) refers to multilateral exchange rate, which is complied as weighted average of domestic exchange rates with respect to foreign currencies. It is mainly used as an economic indicator in order o compare exchange rate of the nation against their main trading partner. In addition, it is highly useful between the Australian dollar and US dollar for estimating changes in competitiveness owing to movements in exchange rate (Burstein and Gopinath 2014, p.395). On the other hand, nominal exchange rate refers to the total number of unit of domestic currency, which can purchase foreign currency unit. However, decline in this variable refers to nominal appreciation of currency while increase in this variable refers to as nominal depreciation of currency. For over the past three years, there have been several fluctuations in nominal exchange rate of Australia and TWI. From the figure below, it can be seen that in the year 2015, there was several fluctuations and thus reflects that the nominal exchange rate of Australias currency was at peak at March (Lustig, Stathopoulos and Verdelhan 2016). Furthermore, during this period, the nominal exchange rate declined to lowest point owing to decline in demand for products and services in Australia. This in turn increases the cost of USD as compared to AUD. During the month of July 2017, it rose at high rate but declined again from October of the recession in the US market. But in the year 2017, the TWI value recorded the highest. Therefore, TWI fluctuated during the last three years based on the trade magnitude between US and Australia. In addition, weak US dollar has been one of the major factors of behavior of AUD. As the US market had become saturated over the years, it lead to recession in the year 2015, which in turn resulted into decrease in demand of products and services of Australia in US market (Sloman, Norris and Garrett 2013). Hence, since the year 2017, the demand for products and services and rate of interest in Australia increases, which in turn lead to increase in AUD demand. However, from the above two figures, it can be seen that there has been increasing trend, which signifies that there will be better business between US and Australia in future. The given article reflects that there have been several reasons for the current fluctuation in AUD as compared to USD. The study also highlights that the major reason behind increase in AUD in respect of USD is increasing price of goods and droop in export of USD. However, this has increased the export of Australia leading to increase in AUD demand (Manalo, Perera, and Rees 2015, p.60). As a result, there has been appreciation of AUD in comparison with USD. In fact, the strength of AUD is not highly sustainable due to rigid wages as well as inflation rate of this nation. Furthermore, some threats also occurs such as decrease in iron ore price in global market, decrease in Chinese economys growth and increasing gap between Australia and US. In addition, it has been predicted that the AUD will again decline to 70 C USD when the interest rate of US begins to surpass interest rate of Australia and export with US declines. The figure below portrays variation in Australian exchange rate with the help of demand and supply (Frenkel and Johnson 2013). Increase in export of iron ore as well as US exchange rate slump leads to rise in exchange rate from Ex to Ex1 as AUD faced rise in demand. Therefore, if the gap in rate of interest increases between US and Australia and declining price of iron ore is considered, then demand will decline to D2. However, new equilibrium occurs at E2 in which the exchange rate is Ex2. Imports will become highly expensive with the depreciation of AUD, which again might lead to lower demand of import goods. However, with less importable demand, the enterprise will increase commodity price for making profit. This increase in price of goods leads to decline in demand for product, which again leads to increase in price (Gabaix and Maggiori 2015, p. 1375). This cycle continues until equilibrium quantity as well as price is attained. In addition, low AUD value in respect of USD, the importer of electric machinery might face huge loss owing to reduction in importable demand. On the contrary, depreciation will also lead to increase in export as the exported goods become cheaper with decline in AUD/USD exchange rate. This in turn will increase the BOP (Balance of Payment) and increase in economic growth. Moreover, deficit in current account with also increase with AUD depreciation as compared to USD. Hence, the terms of trade between US will enhance with decrease in exchang e rate. Considering the overall Australian economy, the exporters of the products are the main ones who enjoy the benefits of lower Australian dollar (Berman, Martin and Mayer 2012, p.449) However, the local business might find competitive edge over the import goods, which in turn generally becomes highly expensive. By taking into account the given situation, it can be said that there are several instruments that the government of Australia might enter the exchange rate in order to gain appreciation. From the newspaper report, it can be seen that exchange rate of Australian dollar has been declining owing to decline in iron ore demand from Australia (Chowdhury 2012, p. 345). In addition, the government of this nation can take plans regarding export promotion by focusing on the US market that in turn might enhance the demand of mining products in Australia. This in turn might lead to increase in AUD demand in the foreign nations. However, this might appreciate AUD in comparison with USD. The given article also highlights that there has been increasing gap of rate in interest between Australia and US owing to increase in the Federal rate. Suppose if the gap increases hugely, then it is expected some of the international investors will make investment in the US economy instead of making it in Austr alian economy (Ismail 2018). This in turn might lead to decline in exchange rate of AUD and increase in exchange rate in USD. In order to bring back the exchange rate, the Reserve Bank of Australia should take some actions. The Australian economy is slowing down owing to sluggish wage rate and inflation rate. For overcoming this condition, the Reserve Bank of Australia should increase their rate of interest and must also take program regarding fiscal expansion from the accumulated fund (Taussig 2013). As a result, this will help to enhance the economic growth by overcoming this condition. Furthermore, the Australian government should also adopt import substitution method as well as quota system for stopping the deficit of net export. Although these plans might help to bring back the exchange rate of AUD from 72C to 80C USD for AUD, this might create adverse impact. For example, implementing import quota system might not be possible in AUSFTA pact between the nations. Additionally, i ncrease in export promotion leads to appreciation in AUD, which again leads to increase in imports (Rios, McConnell and Brue 2013). Apart from this, domestic investment might increase if the government increases rate of interest and thus demand might fall owing to deficiency in liquidity in market. Thus, Australia might bring back exchange rate to 80C USD per unit AUD with this above given plan. Moreover, the government should increase the development of infrastructure, then it be might be beneficial for the nation for increasing the exchange rate. Conclusion From the above report, it can be concluded that exchange rate fluctuates due to several activities in the economy. The demand-supply framework of the Australias exchange rate reflects that its market system is flexible. The TWD data also highlights that there has been fluctuations in AUD relative to that USD for the last few years. Increase in export of iron ore as well as US exchange rate and rise in product price are the main drivers that affect AUD/USD. The depreciation of Australian dollar has positive influence on the organization and thus local business benefits from this. In addition, the actions that Reserve Bank of Australia will take for bringing back exchange rate are- increasing rate of interest, reduction of wage rate and keeps inflation rate low. References Amiti, M., Itskhoki, O. and Konings, J., 2014. Importers, exporters, and exchange rate disconnect.American Economic Review,104(7), pp.1942-78. Berman, N., Martin, P. and Mayer, T., 2012. How do different exporters react to exchange rate changes?.The Quarterly Journal of Economics,127(1), pp.437-492. Bramble, T., 2015. The Australian economy after the mining boom.Red Flag. Burstein, A. and Gopinath, G., 2014. International prices and exchange rates. InHandbook of International Economics(Vol. 4, pp. 391-451). Elsevier. Chinn, M.D. and Wei, S.J., 2013. A faith-based initiative meets the evidence: does a flexible exchange rate regime really facilitate current account adjustment?.Review of Economics and Statistics,95(1), pp.168-184. Chowdhury, K., 2012. Modelling the dynamics, structural breaks and the determinants of the real exchange rate of Australia.Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,22(2), pp.343-358. Frenkel, J.A. and Johnson, H.G. eds., 2013.The Economics of Exchange Rates (Collected Works of Harry Johnson): Selected Studies(Vol. 8). Routledge. Gabaix, X. and Maggiori, M., 2015. International liquidity and exchange rate dynamics.The Quarterly Journal of Economics,130(3), pp.1369-1420. Gallo, C. and Fratello, A., 2014. The Forex market in practice: a computing approach for automated trading strategies.International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences (IJEMS),3(2). Ismail, N. (Conclusiontipped-to-slide-back-to-70-us-cents-20180129-h0pp8v.html [Accessed 16 Mar. 2018]. Lustig, H., Stathopoulos, A. and Verdelhan, A., 2016. Nominal exchange rate stationarity and long-term bond returns.Available at SSRN Manalo, J., Perera, D. and Rees, D.M., 2015. Exchange rate movements and the Australian economy.Economic Modelling,47, pp.53-62. Mancini, L., Ranaldo, A. and Wrampelmeyer, J., 2013. Liquidity in the foreign exchange market: Measurement, commonality, and risk premiums.The Journal of Finance,68(5), pp.1805-1841. Rios, M.C., McConnell, C.R. and Brue, S.L., 2013.Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill. Sloman, J., Norris, K. and Garrett, D., 2013.Principles of economics. Pearson Higher Education AU. Taussig, F.W., 2013.Principles of economics(Vol. 2). Cosimo, Inc..